Bends are manufactured by cutting pipes into two or three segments and joining them together at the required angle using an epoxy resin.
Although manufactured from class H pipes, Bends are not load bearing structures and should be encased in concrete surround to carry any applied load.
Manholes are normally required for inspection purposes over bends in sewers, however, there may be occasions where bends are permitted without a manhole.
The centre line effective length on bends vary depending on diameter of pipe.

 Drainage – UK-PDF               Drainage – IRE/NI-PDF

Spigot and Socket Bends


Spigot and Socket Bends

Click image to enlarge


Junctions are normally attached to full length pipes, inlet part always being the female or socket end.

Concrete surround should always be placed around a junction.

Manholes are normally required at intersection of junctions for inspection purposes, however there may be occasions where junctions are permitted without the use of a manhole
e.g. smaller diameter pipes from road gullies or one off houses to main drain which are usually 100 or 150 Diameter and may be P.V.C. clay pipe, or concrete pipe.

Tumbling Bay Junctions

Spigot and socket junctionTumbling Bay Junctions which are used outside Drop Manholes are normally attached to full length pipes which can be provided with Butt End if requested.

The male or spigot end is always used as outlet on Tumbling Bay junctions.
The Outlet Diameter Pipe is always the same as the main pipe.

Tumbling Bay Junctions and associated bends, used to transfer drain from incoming invert to lower invert level, must be surrounded in concrete.
Customers are asked to give adequate notice of their requirements for junctions or bends as they are usually made to order, this is due to the vast range and type for each diameter of pipe.


Case Studies

Titanic Signature Project, Belfast

Harbour Way Project, Port Talbot, Wales

Bedale, Aiskew and Leeming Bar Bypass, North Yorkshire

Rotherhithe, London – Thames Water

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